Command line search and search operators

The command line search mode is the most powerful way to find documents. Combining the use of boolean and proximity operators, with limits and filters will help dig into results, offering more relevant documents. You can build complex queries such as this one:

title:"ebola virus" AND abstract:epidemic AND year:<2015

Command line can be used from the main (basic) search page, but if you are not familiar with the syntax, you can start from the advanced search page; from there you will be able to start building your query. Using this query builder will help users quickly learn what search options are available.


Currently available search fields are:

  • title
  • author
  • journal
  • abstract
  • keywords
  • organization

The basic search operators are:

AND (default) lithium AND battery both terms must occur
 OR  lithium OR battery one term must occur
NOT lithium NOT battery
results with "battery" will be excluded
lithium -battery  same as NOT


Other operators are available to help build a more complex query:

grouping: () (lithium AND battery)
exact phrase: ""  "lithium battery"
phrase with word stemming: '' 'lithium battery'
proximity: ~n (to be used in conjunction with "") "lithium battery"~2
truncation: multiple characters: * batter* 


The search operators can be combined with search fields:

Example 1: title:'battery mesoporous'~3 AND author:ishih*
Example 2: 'carbon nanotube' AND (lithium NOT battery)


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